Solar panel components and function- Solar panel is a device that was specifically created to capture sunlight and convert it directly into electricity. The device is the main part in order to maximize the enormous potential energy of sunlight that reaches the earth. The solar panel is a device with two terminals or connections, where the dark area or not enough light it will function as a diode, whereas when the sunlight, they will produce a voltage. When irradiated, generally commercial solar cells generate a DC voltage of 0.5-1 volts. Large voltages and currents are not sufficient for many applications. This is the reason why later a number of solar cells arranged in series to form a solar module. One solar module typically consists of 28-36 solar panel and total produce a DC voltage of 12 V in standard lighting conditions.
Along the development of science and technology, today various types of solar panel technology continue to grow. As it grows, the structure or the parts making up the cell are also likely to experience improvements. Here are solar panel components and functions:
This is the material that sustains all elements of solar panels. The substrate material must have good electrical conductivity as it will also serve as a positive terminal contact of solar panels. Generally, the material used is metal or metal such as aluminum or molybdenum. For the dye-sensitized solar panel (DSSC) and organic solar panels, the substrate also serves as the entry point of light.
- Semiconductor Material
Semiconductor material forms a core part of the solar panels that have a thin layer. The function of the semiconductor material is to absorb light from the sun.
The semiconductor parts consist of junction or a combination of the two semiconductor materials, namely p-type semiconductor and n-type which forms a p-n junction. In addition to the substrate as a positive contact, on the surface of a semiconductor material is usually superimposed by a transparent metal material as the negative contact.
- The antireflective layer
It is a thin layer of equipment with a large optical refractive index between the semiconductor and the air that causes the light is deflected toward the semiconductor so as to minimize the light that is reflected back. The function of the antireflective coating is to optimize the light absorbed by the semiconductor.
Encapsulation is a part that serves to protect the solar module from rain or dirt.
Each component has associated with one another. Solar panels will work with the maximum only if each element is in good and mutual support between the components with other components. That’s why to be able to get quality solar panels, and they work well, you should be careful and selective in choosing a solar panel as well as attention and ensure that each component of the solar panel is functioning well and has high stability. The easiest way you can do is to simply select and entrust the needs of solar panels at a manufacturer of professional and reliable, at least they should be supported by people who are competent in their field, using only the best materials to get a solar panel component and functions optimally.